hyperlinks

bold italic font

better spacing in`eqnarray`

change labeling of list items

enumerate copycat

equation labels at left

an environment for proofs

example of Theorem, Lemma, etc. declarations, and choice of fonts

various label formats

appendix sections

numbers only

page and margin dimensions

matrices and functions

multi-line mathematics

- add hyperlinks, so that you can
*click*on references, theorem numbers etc. to jump to the place where they are in the paper (at least for the DVI and PDF versions): include

This should be the last`\usepackage{hyperref}`

`\usepackage`

item (if not the last command in the preamble of your document), so that its settings are not overruled. Often no other change is needed in the file.

**Warning:**It seems that`\documentclass{article}`

does not work with`hyperref`

; use instead`\documentclass{amsart}`

.

For a manual which describes more features, check http://www.tug.org/applications/hyperref/manual.html.

A less technical description is in the "The Not So Short Introduction to LaTeX" mentioned in the Internet help section of this chapter. - produce bold italic font (declarations are
cumulative):
`\textit{regular and \textbf{bold} italic}`

`Info`page for LaTeX, under Commands/Typefaces. For details about`Info`, as well as a HTML version of it, see the Online help section. - the default (large) spacing of
`eqnarray`

can be adjusted by changing`\arraycolsep`

, as in this example (copied from the "Not so short introduction to LaTeX", version 4.13):`{\setlength{\arraycolsep}{2pt} \begin{eqnarray} a & = & b \end{eqnarray} }`

- change the way items are numbered in
the
`enumerate`environment (can deal with`itemize`too):`\renewcommand{\labelenumi}{(\alph{enumi})}`

`enumerate`

.

If it is placed within a`\begin{enumerate}...\end{enumerate}`

block, it is effective only for that particular list. - define an "enumerate" where
the items are numbered in bold-face, and are not preceded by "--"
(this is a simple definition, which does not have all the features of
`\item`

; it might be used to count statements in a "Remarks" environment):`\newcounter{myenum} \newenvironment{myenumerate}{\setcounter{myenum}{1}\def\item{\par{\bf \arabic{myenum}.\ }\stepcounter{myenum}}}{\newline}`

- to have the equation numbers on the
left use the
`leqno`

option (and`reqno`

for equation numbers on the right, but this seems to be the default):`\documentclass[12pt, leqno]{article}`

- Define an environment for proofs
(note that such an environment is already defined in
`\documentclass{amsart}`

):`% this might be already defined \newcommand{\qed}{\hfill \mbox{\raggedright \rule{.07in}{.1in}}} % this might be already defined \newenvironment{proof}{\vspace{1ex}\noindent{\bf Proof}\hspace{0.5em}} {\hfill\qed\vspace{1ex}} \newenvironment{pfof}[1]{\vspace{1ex}\noindent{\bf Proof of #1}\hspace{0.5em}} {\hfill\qed\vspace{1ex}}`

- Define environments for Theorems, Lemmas
etc.;

Use the`theorem`

package to change the fonts used in Definitions etc.**NOTE:**`\usepackage{theorem}`

**should not be invoked**in`\documentclass{amsart}`

; the other commands are unchanged.`\documentclass[12pt]{article} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{theorem} \sloppy % makes TeX less fussy about line breaking \pagestyle{plain} % use just a plain page number \numberwithin{equation}{section} % add the section number to the equation label \theoremstyle{plain} % use "default" font \newtheorem{thm}{Theorem}[section] \newtheorem{lemma}[thm]{Lemma} \newtheorem{prop}[thm]{Proposition} \newtheorem{cor}[thm]{Corollary} \theoremstyle{definition} % use "definition-style" font for the rest \newtheorem{defn}[thm]{Definition} \newtheorem{examp}[thm]{Example} \newtheorem{conj}[thm]{Conjecture} \newtheorem{rmk}[thm]{Remark}`

`plain`

and`definition`

in`\theoremstyle`

depends on the`\documentclass`

used. You can be more forcefull by using`{\theorembodyfont{\rmfamily} \newtheorem{defn}[thm]{Definition} \newtheorem{examp}[thm]{Example} \newtheorem{conj}[thm]{Conjecture} \newtheorem{rmk}[thm]{Remark}}`

`\documentclass`

'es. - Redefine various labels for equations.
etc.
`\renewcommand{\theequation}{\thesection.\arabic{equation}} \renewcommand{\thesection}{\arabic{section}} \renewcommand{\thesubsection}{\arabic{section}.\arabic{subsection}} \renewcommand{\thesubsection}{(\alph{subsection})}`

- Redefine the heading of appendix
sections (at least, for
`\documentclass{article}`

).`% begin appendix \appendix % add "Appendix" to the section heading \newcommand{\appsection}[1]{\let\oldthesection\thesection \renewcommand{\thesection}{Appendix \oldthesection} \section{#1}\let\thesection\oldthesection} % example (otherwise, use just`

`\section`

) \appsection{H\"older spaces} - Create a "number", without using the corresponding
environment (can be done with other counters too).
`\refstepcounter{equation}(\theequation)\label{new-number}`

`\newcommand{\MYitem}{\refstepcounter{equation}\textbf{(\theequation)}}`

`\label`

whenever needed. - Adjust page size and margins (look for
"Page Layout" in the
*Not so short introduction*):`\hoffset=-.75in \textwidth=6.5in \voffset=-.5in \textheight=9.0in`

`\setlength{\hoffset}{-.75in} \setlength{\textwidth}{6.5in} \setlength{\voffset}{-.5in} \setlength{\textheight}{9.0in}`

`\setlength`

or`\addtolength`

) are`\oddsidemargin, \evensidemargin, \topmargin`

(the first affects the left margin of odd-numbered pages, the second that of even-numbered pages). - Create a
**matrix**(can also choose other parantheses, or allign the matrix extries to left or right):\[ A= \left( \begin{array}{cc} a & b \\ c & d \end{array} \right) \]

The same method can be used to describe

**a function given by cases**(but see below): the opening brace is gotten with`\left\{`

which is paired with`\right.`

(since there is no closing one).

A better way to do this is with the environment`cases`

:\[ G(x)= \begin{cases} 0, & x\le 0\\ \exp\left(-x^{-\alpha}\right), & x > 0 \end{cases} \]

- To write more consequtive lines
in mathematical mode one can use (all with the
`\begin \end`

environment construction):`eqnarray`

,`gather`

,`gathered`

,`align`

,`aligned`

,`multline`

,`split`

, etc.

Some have a *'ed version (so that none of the lines is numbered).

The lines are divided with`\\`

.

Some of these are to be used in math-mode (that is, inside`\begin{equation} \end{equation}`

or`\[ \]`

), others directly. It might be necessary to load the`ams`

packages.